St. Andrew's Church, Kraków, Poland

One of the oldest buildings surviving in Kraków, St. Andrew’s Church dates to 1079-1098 and is one of Europe’s very few extant fortress churches. Along the bottom of the larger section of the façade are a series of small openings which served as defensive windows so that the church could be used as a refuge in times of violence.

This must have worked as St. Andrew’s is the only church in Kraków to have survived the Mongol attack in 1241. From 1320 the church was used by the Order of St. Klara’s. Over the centuries various renovations have occurred at the Church, the most obvious being the Baroque additions dating to the 1630s. Otherwise St. Andrew’s is considered to be one of Poland’s best preserved Romanesque churches.

Photo - Andrew J. Müller

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